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Winemaking: A Step by Step Guide

June 29, 2020 Leave a comment

Today I would like to offer you a guest post by William Reed, who is a passionate winemaker that continues his family’s the age-old tradition of producing quality homemade wine. With respect to
heritage and classic concepts as well as a zesty touch of the modern, William continues to explore the vast world of winemaking all while sharing his thoughts, ideas, and processes on his own personal website at myhomewine.com.

Winemaking or vinification is the process of making wine, from start to finish, which ends up having a lot of detailed steps you should know, so are you ready to begin this long but incredibly rewarding journey?

Some people say it’s easy to make wine but making good and fruity ones is only for the experts – well that’s not entirely true as we’ll see below. Summed up, the major steps on how to make wine are the selection of grapes, their fermentation to alcohol, and, lastly, the bottling. You can make all types of wine but the most common ones are red wine, white wine, or rosé, and even though they are pretty different between, their process is very similar.

Wine has been produced for thousands of years, being almost considered as an art, having an important role in religion and there is even a science that studies wine and winemaking, called oenology. Generally speaking, wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes with 5.5 – 15.5% alcohol and is a cultural symbol of the European life, changing from a nutritional supplement to a food complimentary beverage, compatible with a good lifestyle. Drinking isn’t safe for everyone and doing it more than moderate amounts can lead to health problems, however, a study from 2018 proved that wine can have great benefits because it contains antioxidants and it promotes anti-inflammatory and lipid-improving effects.

The classification of this beverage can be done according to its origin, methods, vintage, or variety used. Practices can be different in each country and have varied over time to achieve progress. Wine-growing regions all over the world have been improving their conditions with technological innovations to have better hygiene and control over the production process, contributing to the creation of wines suited to the taste of consumers. In fact, global wine consumption has risen with the purpose to enjoy in moderation, as part of a modern, sustainable, and healthy lifestyle. You can also take a look at the following guide in case you want to learn how to make wine at home.

With that said, I will now present you with the process of winemaking, in a thorough but also easy to understand step by step manner:

1 – Choosing the Perfect Grapes

The first step of all is harvesting! It’s one of the crucial stages in this operation, and it’s really easy to understand why – the better grapes you have, the better the product will be!

The moment the grapes are picked from the vineyard will determine their sweetness, flavour, and acidic and tannin levels – now we know why it’s called science. Some of the tracked conditions are the weather, the time of harvest and even the way you pick them – hand picking or mechanical harvesting. Even though there is a lot to consider and to control when it comes to reaching a nice final product, don’t get too scared, as you’ll only reach perfection through trial and error.

2 – Crush!

Once you have the grapes picked up from the vineyard, it’s time to de-stem them and gently squeeze them to liberate their content. This process, in the past or in traditional smaller scale farms, is done by foot. Nowadays, and in bigger wineries, mechanical presses are used to turn grapes into must (pulp) in a much faster and efficient way. Some say this can affect grapes negatively but it’s a more sanitary crushing step and also helps the quality of the final result. Personally, I’d prefer the machines rather than drinking wine crushed by some random farmer’s feet!

What is tapped from the must depends on the type of wine you are making. If white wine is what you want, then the seeds, solids and skins are removed from the grape juice. On the other hand, if red wine is what you prefer, the seeds, solids and skins should stay along with grape juice to offer it more flavour and that beautiful red colour.

3 – Sugar into Alcohol: Fermentation

It’s true, the third step is fermentation and is quickly defined as a transformation from sugar into alcohol – it seems like magic, am I right? It only seems like it, because here is where this process is the longest and most complicated, as it determines the quality of the final result.

As you already know, the product obtained from crushing will ferment because of the present yeasts that transform the sugar, as an energy source, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. This explains the primary fermentation, which is called alcoholic fermentation, and will last from 5 to 14 days, requiring a lot of careful control (if the goal is a high premium luxurious wine). The second one is called malolactic fermentation, lasts another 5 to 10 days and it characterizes the pH 3,8 of red wines and 3,55 of white wines. Pure science! Temperature, speed and level of oxygen are also extremely important considerations and must be optimized. This whole process can take weeks or even months.

4 – Clarification and Stabilization

After fermentation, it’s time for clarification! This is where pulp, proteins, dead yeast, and other unwanted residues, created during the chemical reactions, are removed from the juice that you can almost call wine at this point. Particles that are insoluble and float, can be filtered and the ones that are soluble but still undesirable, can be centrifuged. Both of these methods need to be optimized to obtain a clear, healthy and appropriate wine. Some natural winemakers don’t clarify because they believe that it diminishes the aroma, texture, and color, so they leave the particles and compounds in red wines for aging – I follow this school of thought.

At this point, you already know that wine can be claimed as a complex mixture built upon microorganisms, and that it can be unstable and reactive depending on the environment and the condition submitted. One of the techniques to stabilize it is cold stabilization and it consists of exposing the wine to low temperatures, close to freezing, for two weeks. The complexity of this whole step is amazing because it enables winemakers to deliver their individual appeal to each wine.

5 – Aging and Bottling

This is the final step but one that is very important in winemaking, because it’s the relocation of the wine into oak barrels (my preferred vessel), stainless steel tanks or bottles.

Wine aging can be defined as a group of reactions that changes the properties of wine and allows it to develop unique flavors over time. Premium wines need to pass through this maturation step to acquire some amazing characteristics like aroma, color, flavour, texture and mouthfeel. Other light and fruity wines don’t need aging and reach their quality peak in a shorter time.

The major considerations in bottling are what kind of bottle to use, type of closure (sealing), (maybe cork), and if you want to add gas or not (not recommended at all for beginners). There are also a lot of kits available for you if you want to experiment making wine at home in a small but very educational manner.

Enjoy it – with Moderation!

Here is every important and crucial step in the winemaking process and you can apply them at your own industry or even at home! Yes, you can make this fruity, incredible juice without leaving your house. If you’re not interested in making your own, you can think about this whole procedure when you’re enjoying it, remembering the magic behind and realizing the work put on it.

Winemaking can be difficult because there are a lot of conditions you need to optimize, starting from picking the grape, to the act of bottling the wine, to the temperature you apply and the cleanliness. Now we can agree that this is almost an art and you have to learn a little bit of science too! Don’t forget that drinking wine in moderation has positive benefits linked to some cardiovascular disease due to the amount of antioxidants, isn’t that great? Thank you for reading and let’s have a glass of wine!

Guest Post: Why You Need to Drink Wines From Victoria, Australia, and Where to Try Them

August 3, 2018 4 comments

Today I want to offer you a guest post by Lucia Guadagnuolo who is a tour host and blogger for Wine Compass. When she’s not traveling or indulging in the fried delights of Southern Italian cooking, Lucia enjoys discovering the ever-changing food and wine scene in her hometown of Melbourne, Australia. She’s also recently completed the WSET Level 3 Award in Wines.

Becoming well regarded in the wine world for its cool climate expressions, you’d be forgiven for thinking otherwise of an Australian wine region. Warm sunny beaches and rugged Australian outback is what we’re used to seeing, and big bold Shiraz is probably what you’re used to drinking. While this might be true for the majority of Australia’s wine producing regions, Victoria, which is located in the South-East of the continent, experiences quite a cool to moderate climate. This, of course, is due to its latitudinal position, but also the cooling breeze from the Southern Ocean. So what does all this mean for those of us interested in exploring more of the wines from Australia? It means subtle, but varied expressions of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. The two most planted varieties in the region, in both Yarra Valley and Mornington Peninsula, where most plantings of these varieties are found.

Australia has somewhat of a more relaxed approach to winemaking than some of the more traditional, old world countries. This means winemakers have the freedom to experiment and create wines from many different varieties that rival those of France, Italy and Spain combined. This same creative nature and desire for something different extends to the cellar door experience. Smaller boutique wineries, producing premium wines, are offering an intimate experience for visitors. You’ll often find the winemakers themselves pouring you a tasting, and giving you first-hand knowledge about the wine in your glass. It really doesn’t get much better than that!

So now you know why you should be drinking wines from Victoria, let’s find out the best places to try them…

Yileena Park – Yarra Valley

Carved into a hillside at the base of the Christmas Hills in the Yarra Valley, Yileena Park offers a unique and homely cellar door experience. They make premium wines that really highlight the great quality fruit being grown in the region today. Most of the wines at Yileena Park are aged for a minimum of four years before release, the reserve range is aged for 6 years, and the reserve Cabernet Sauvignon aged for 8 years before it’s available at the cellar door for purchase and tasting.

While you enjoy your wine, you get to experience endless views of the Steels Creek mountain range and devour a platter of smoked olives, cheeses, nuts and olive oil – all produced using the very barrels that their wines are matured in. Owners Bob and Diane are also always on hand to chat about the current vintage, and those gone by.

Pimpernel Vineyards – Yarra Valley

This quiet little cellar door in the heart of the Yarra Valley, is making a lot of noise in the wine industry, undoubtedly producing some of the best premium wines in Victoria. If you love your Pinot Noir, then you’ll be spoiled for choice with a significant range available and open for tasting. You can even compare different Pinot clones and the different winemaking techniques used to produce wines from each one. They also produce some outstanding Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Viognier, Syrah, and Shiraz, as well as some amazing blends.

Quealy Winemakers – Mornington Peninsula

A true testament to the Australian spirit of doing things a little bit differently, Quealy Winemakers on the Mornington Peninsula have set the standards in the region for growing unique varieties. The first to plant Pinot Grigio in the region and sell Friulano commercially, they have a range not often seen on the Peninsula. Pioneer winemaker Kathleen Quealy is often on hand at the cellar door to give you an insight into their winemaking techniques, and is always willing to give guests a private tour of the winery. Also, one of the few producers using terracotta amphora to mature their wines, which you’ll be lucky enough to sneak a peak at when you stop by for a tasting.

Ocean Eight – Mornington Peninsula

Set on a beautifully manicured garden landscape, this winery and cellar door really is picture perfect. In fact, the only thing better than the surrounds, are the wines. Not for sale anywhere else in the world outside of this very cellar door, you absolutely must visit Ocean Eight when on the Mornington Peninsula. Their premium range includes Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and Pinot Gris. Not a huge offering, but what they do, they do extremely well. Enjoy a tasting in their underground cellar, you won’t regret it.

Wine Compass are the Victorian wine country specialists and offer private guided tours of both the Yarra Valley and Mornington Peninsula, with bespoke itineraries specifically tailored to you.

 

South Africa’s Top 10 Méthode Cap Classique Wines

October 19, 2017 2 comments

Today I want to bring to your attention a guest post by Brittany Hawkins – for more information about Brittany, please see the bottom of this post.

Source: Wikipedia

Most of us know that real Champagne only comes from Champagne, France.

Some of us also understand that there is a significant difference in the processes used to make Champagne versus many other sparkling wines. But there are other bubbly wines that are made in the tradition of Champagne, which is known as méthode classique.

If you didn’t know this, we will fill you in on the details in a moment, but do know that this little fact is at least one part of the secret behind why South Africa’s MCC (Méthode Cap Classique) wines are so highly sought after?

What Makes MCC So Special?

When you drink a South African MCC, there are at least two key differences between it and the majority of other sparkling wines.

First, as alluded to above, MCCs are made in the traditional Champagne way. This means that the wine is fermented a second time in the bottle (not a tank, like some sparkling wines) using a solution of yeast and sugar. The bottle is left anywhere from 1 ½ to 3 years during the second fermentation. This process is what carbonates the wine.

So, when you open up a bottle of MCC, you are about to enjoy the closest thing on earth to Champagne other than Champagne itself. In fact, South African MCCs are truly rivaling French champagnes due to the quality of their grapes and wine makers.

However, while South African MCC is made méthode classique, it has some unique South African markers. Particularly, as a result of the warmer climate and consistent temperatures of the South African wine country, MCCs tend to be fruitier in character than Champagne and many other sparkling wines, creating unique tasting profile.

Now, let’s give you a run-down of the top 10 MCCs South Africa has to offer.

  1. Simonsig Cuvée Royale Blanc de Blancs 2012

Simonsig Wines in Stellenbosch is home to the very first South Africa Méthode Cap Classique.

It should come as no surprise, then, that we name Simonsig at the top of our list. In the 2017 Cap Classique Challenge, they had two double gold medal winners, as well as other medalists.

We have to agree with the judges of the annual competition in saying that Simonsig’s Cuvée Royale Blanc de Blanc from 2012 is number 1 on the list.

  1. Simonsig Woolworth’s Pinot Noir Rosé 2015

Produced by Simonsig only for Woolworth’s, this MCC Pinot Noir Rosé offers that fruity quality mentioned above, with a crispness sure to deliver a pleasing and refreshing experience.

  1. Domaine des Dieux Claudia Brut 2011

 Tucked away in the foothills of the Hemel-en-Aarde Ridge mountains, Domaine des Dieux is a boutique wine farm with very impressive, award-winning wines. Also a gold medalist in the 2017 Cap Classique, Domaine des Dieux’s Claudia Brut MCC will not disappoint.

Made from a predominantly Chardonnay and Pinot Noir base grown in a cooler climate than average South African wine, this MCC will deliver a bit fuller, more austere flavor.

  1. Boschendal’s Brut Rosé NV

 Boschendal farm, in the heart of the Stellenbosch wine country, is one of the oldest wine farms in the country, founded in 1685. Today, it is committed to biodiversity and sustainability.

Boschendal’s award-winning MCC, the Brute Rosé brings together Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Pinotage to create a unique, versatile blend that is as tasty to the tongue as it is pleasing to the eye. All the grapes and wine used to produce it come directly from their farm.

  1. Graham Beck Brut Rosé 2012

 The Graham Beck Robertson estate is situated in the cool Breede River Valley. They specialize in Cap Classique wines and have a cellar devoted purely to its making and are known for producing some of the best Méthode Classique in the world.

They have numerous award-winning MCCs, but their Brute Rosé recently won gold for best of 2017.

  1. J.C. Le Roux Scintilla 2011

J.C. Le Roux is considered to be one of the leading producers of MCC in all of South Africa. Located in the Devon Valley of Stellenbosch, they are considered a house of bubbly, producing top brands of Cap Classique – Scintilla and Desiderius Pongracz. While most of their MCCs are exquisite, we highly recommend you try their Scintilla 2011. 

  1. Babylonstoren Sprankel 2012

Babylonstoren is another wine farm committed to biodiversity, sustainability with many ways for guests to interact with their farm and winery.

Their award winning MCC, their 2012 Sprankel, is composed of Chardonnay grapes which are carefully chosen from various different vineyards with ideal altitudes. They bring these grapes together to create an MCC with a vibrant and crisp fruity flavor with hints of citrus and passion fruit. 

  1. Laborie Brut 2011

Established in the 1700’s, Laborie has been operating as a world class wine farm for some decades now.

Their award-winning Laborie Brut was made with tender loving care, allowed to mature on its lees for 24 solid months before it was disgorged and bottled. 

  1. Stellenbosch Infiniti Brut

A name well established as one of the greats of the South African wine estates, it should come as no surprise that Stellenbosch produces a superb MCC. Their Infiniti Brut will give you a unique MCC experience, with warm nutty flavors with a hint of citrus.    

  1. Bon Courage Jacques Buére de Blancs 2010

Located in the cooler region of Robertson valley, Bon Courage Estate is home to both locally and internationally recognized and acclaimed wines.

Their line of MCC’s, the Jacques Bruér line, all undergo at least 36-48 months of yeast contact before disgorgement. The Blanc de Blanc is especially exquisite.

For more information on South African Wine farm tours and how to visit them when in South Africa Explore Sideways has all the information you will ever need.

 

Brittany head shotAbout Brittany Hawkins:

Brittany’s passion for food and wine began in her hometown, Napa Valley, California, where she grew up immersed in the wine industry. After receiving a degree from DePauw University, she began her career in Silicon Valley in the advertising and marketing industries. Brittany moved to Cape Town 3 years ago where she launched Explore Sideways and has since been able to marry her interests in food, wine, travel and tech to create transformative experiences around the world.

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